Friday, March 20, 2020

Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, 1986

Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, 1986 At 1:23 a.m. on April 26th, 1986, reactor four at the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, Ukraine exploded, releasing more than a hundred times the radiation of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Thirty-one people died shortly after the explosion and thousands more are expected to die from the long-term effects of radiation. The Chernobyl nuclear disaster dramatically changed the worlds opinion about using nuclear reaction for power. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant The Chernobyl nuclear power plant was built in the wooded marshlands of northern Ukraine, approximately 80 miles north of Kiev. Its first reactor went online in 1977, the second in 1978, third in 1981, and fourth in 1983; two more were planned for construction. A small town, Pripyat, was also built near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to house the workers and their families. Routine Maintenance and a Test on Reactor Four On April 25, 1986, reactor four was going to be shut down for some routine maintenance. During the shutdown, technicians were also going to run a test. The test was to determine whether, in case of a power outage, the turbines could produce enough energy to keep the cooling system running until the backup generators came online. The shutdown and test began at 1 a.m. on April 25th. To get accurate results from the test, the operators turned off several of the safety systems, which turned out to be a disastrous decision. In the middle of the test, the shutdown had to be delayed nine hours because of a high demand for power in Kiev. The shutdown and test continued again at 11:10 p.m. on the night of April 25th. A Major Problem Just after 1 a.m. on April 26th, 1986, the reactors power dropped suddenly, causing a potentially dangerous situation. The operators tried to compensate for the low power but the reactor went out of control. If the safety systems had remained on, they would have fixed the problem; however, they were not. The reactor exploded at 1:23 a.m. The World Discovers the Meltdown The world discovered the accident two days later, on April 28th, when operators of the Swedish Forsmark nuclear power plant in Stockholm registered unusually high radiation levels near their plant. When other plants around Europe began to register similar high radiation readings, they contacted the Soviet Union to find out what had happened. The Soviets denied any knowledge about a nuclear disaster until 9 p.m. on April 28th, when they announced to the world that one of the reactors had been damaged. Attempts to Clean Up While trying to keep the nuclear disaster a secret, the Soviets were also trying to clean it up. At first they poured water on the many fires, then they tried to put them out with sand and lead and then nitrogen. It took nearly two weeks to put the fires out. Citizens in the nearby towns were told to stay indoors. Pripyat was evacuated on April 27th, the day after the disaster had begun; the town of Chernobyl wasnt evacuated until May 2, six days after the explosion. Physical clean-up of the area continued. Contaminated topsoil was placed into sealed barrels and radiated water contained. Soviet engineers also encased the remains of the fourth reactor in a large, concrete sarcophagus to prevent additional radiation leakage. The sarcophagus, constructed quickly and in dangerous conditions, had already begun to crumble by 1997. An international consortium has begun plans to create a containment unit that will be placed over the current sarcophagus. Death Toll From the Chernobyl Disaster Thirty-one people died shortly after the explosion; however, thousands of others who were exposed to high levels of radiation will suffer serious health effects, including cancers, cataracts, and cardiovascular disease.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Florine Stettheimer, Avant-Garde Artist of the Jazz Age

Florine Stettheimer, Avant-Garde Artist of the Jazz Age Florine Stettheimer (August 19, 1871–May 11, 1944) was an American painter and poet whose brushy, colorful canvases depicted the social milieux of New York in the Jazz Age. During her lifetime, Stettheimer chose to keep her distance from the mainstream art world and only shared her work selectively. As a result, her legacy as a truly original American Folk-Modernist, while still modest, is now slowly building, decades after her death. Fast Facts: Florine Stettheimer Known For: Jazz Age artist with an avant-garde styleBorn: August 19, 1871 in Rochester, New YorkDied: May 11, 1944 in New York City, New YorkEducation: Art Students League of New YorkSelected Work: Cathedrals series, Family Portrait II, Asbury Park Early Life Florine Stettheimer was born in 1871 in Rochester, New York, the fourth of five children. Throughout her life, she had a close relationship with the two siblings closest to her in age- her older sister Carrie and her younger sister Ettie- as none of the sisters ever married. Both of Stettheimer’s parents were descendants of successful banking families. When her father Joseph left the family when the girls were children, they lived off their mothers, Rosetta Walter Stettheimer, sizable inheritance. In later life, Stettheimer’s independent wealth may have accounted for some of her reluctance to show her work publicly, as she was not dependent on the art market to support herself. This, in turn, may have affected the content of her work, as she was not forced to abide by the whims of cultural tastes and could more or less paint as she pleased. Florine Stettheimer, Spring Sale at Bendels (1921), oil on canvas, Philadelphia Museum of Art. Public Domain Personality and Persona Stettheimer spent her early years of schooling in Germany, but returned to New York City often to take classes at the Art Students League. She moved back to New York in 1914 before the start of World War I and took a studio near Bryant Park in the Beaux-Arts building. She became close friends with many of the movers and shakers in the art world at the time, including the father of Dada (and creator of R. Mutt’s Fountain), Marcel Duchamp, who taught French to the Stettheimer sisters. The company the Stettheimer sisters kept was highly creative. Many of the men and women who frequented Alwyn Court (the Stettheimer home on 58th Street and 7th Avenue) were artists and members of the avant-garde. Frequent visitors included Romaine Brooks, Marsden Hartley, Georgia O’Keefe, and Carl Van Vechten. Stettheimer’s politics and attitudes were distinctly liberal. She attended an early feminist conference in France when she was in her twenties, did not cringe at risquà © depictions of sexuality on stage, and was an ardent supporter of Al Smith, who favored a woman’s right to vote. She was also an outspoken supporter of Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal, making it the centerpiece of her famous Cathedrals of Wall Street (1939), now at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. She collected George Washington memorabilia and called him the â€Å"only man I collect.† Despite the time she spent in Europe, Stettheimer’s love of her home country is clear in the scenes of jubilation she choose to represent under its flag. Work Stettheimer’s best known works are of social scenes or portraits interspersed with symbolic references to their subjects’ lives and milieux, often including some reference to her own identity as a painter. Florine Stettheimer, The Cathedrals of Broadway, 1929, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Public Domain / CC01.0   From a young age, the multi-sensory experience of attending the theater appealed to Stettheimer. Though her initial attempts at set design failed (she approached the dancer Vaslav Nijinsky with an idea of bringing the myth of Orpheus to the stage with her as set designer, only to be rejected), there is an undeniable theatricality to her canvases. Their visually-optimized but inaccurate perspective allows for the entire scene to be viewed from one point of view, and their elaborate framing devices give off the appearance of a proscenium or other elements of a theater or stage. Later in her life, Stettheimer did design the sets and costumes for Four Saints in Three Acts, an opera whose libretto was written by famed modernist Gertrude Stein. Art Career In 1916, Stettheimer was given a solo show at the well-known M. Knoedler Co. Gallery, but the show was not well received. It was the first and last solo show of her work in her lifetime. Stettheimer opted instead for throwing â€Å"birthday parties† for each new painting––essentially a party thrown in her home whose main event was the unveiling of a new work. The social occasion model of exhibiting was not a far cry from the salons for which the Stettheimer women were known during the interwar years. Stettheimer was known as a wit with a sharp tongue, uninhibited when it came to social critique. Her painting, as well as her poetry, are clear evidence of this assessment, such as the commentary on the art market which is the driving force of this poem: Art is Spelled with a Capital AAnd capital also backs itIgnorance also makes it swayThe chief thing is to make it payIn a quite dizzying wayHurrah–hurrah– Stettheimer was very deliberate about her image as an artist, often refusing to be photographed by the many significant photographers she counted among her friends (including Cecil Beaton) and instead opting to be represented by her painted self. Appearing in the straight cuts of clothing fashionable in the 1920s, the painted version of Florine wore red high heels and never seemed to age past forty, despite the fact that the artist died in her early 70s. While most often she would directly insert her image, palette in hand, into a scene, in Soirà ©e (c. 1917), she includes a nude self-portrait not widely exhibited (presumably because of its salacious content). Later Life and Death Florine Stettheimer died in 1944, two weeks before the Museum of Modern Art exhibited what she called her â€Å"masterpiece,† Family Portrait II (1939), a canvas which returned to her favorite subjects: her sisters, her mother, and her beloved New York City. Two years after her death, her great friend Marcel Duchamp helped organize a retrospective of her work at the same museum. Sources Bloemink, Barbara. Imagine The Fun Florine Stettheimer Would Have With Donald Trump: The Artist As Feminist, Democrat, And Chronicler Of Her Time.  Artnews, 2018, artnews.com/2017/07/06/imagine-the-fun-florine-stettheimer-would-have-with-donald-trump-the-artist-as-feminist-democrat-and-chronicler-of-her-time/. Brown, Stephen, and Georgiana Uhlyarik.  Florine Stettheimer: Painting Poetry. Yale University Press, 2017.Gotthardt, Alexxa. The Flamboyant Feminism Of Cult Artist Florine Stettheimer.  Artsy, 2018, https://www.artsy.net/article/artsy-editorial-flamboyant-feminism-cult-artist-florine-stettheimer. Smith, Roberta. A Case For The Greatness Of Florine Stettheimer.  nytimes.com, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/18/arts/design/a-case-for-the-greatness-of-florine-stettheimer.html.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Reflective Portfolio Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Reflective Portfolio - Essay Example To make the best use of the funds as well as for the provision of the best care at care homes the public care body introduced numerous policy initiatives. This is made more visible by the National Health Systems (NHS) Plan as well as the reaction of the government towards the Royal Commission on the Long Term Care. The reason behind this has been the helplessness of the residents, the impacts of the demographic changes upon the number of the old people requiring residential care such as subsidy. It has further been noted that there is high cost associated with such care. Therefore, it is quite important to comprehend the key aspects of such health care provisions (Personal Social Services Research Unit, 2001). With the partnership among the local authority and the NHS, the social care related services are generally provided in Cambridgeshire. It has been evident that the Cambridgeshire Community Services NHS Trust aims at serving the older people with all the necessary health as well as the social care related support that can be made available at one place (Cambridgeshire Country Council, 2011). However, it has been noted that there is discrepancy in the provision of the services to the people under the NHS scheme. ... B. Framework of Legislation, Codes Of Practice Influencing Social Care I. National Care Standards Commission Regulations and Standards It is worth mentioning that the care homes for the older people need to meet the National Minimum Standards that have been identified by the National Care Standards Commission in order to determine if the care homes tend to meet the needs of such standards, as well as work for the welfare of the people living there. The standards tend to verify that whether the care homes consist of the individuals who may work at unique and complex situations. In addition to this the individuals need to possess specific skills and knowledge that may be required to deliver individually tailored as well as all-inclusive services. There are various themes that support the drafting of the National Minimum Standards for the care home of the elderly people. The regulators are supposed to comply with the various themes that have been drafted. While applying the standards it is important for the regulator to prove that the policies, the activities the facilities as well as the services that the care centre provides will deliver positive results. While applying the standards the inspector may ask for evidences that prove that the care homes are meeting the needs of the service users and their changing needs are taken care of. Since it is the manager along with the staffs who are responsible for looking after the old age people in such care homes, therefore in implementing the standards the regulators may look for the evidences that tend to show that the managers as well as the staffs of the particular health care organisation have achieved TOPSS requirement which is understood as The National Training Organisation for social care (Department of

Monday, February 3, 2020

Catholic Mass Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Catholic Mass - Essay Example This in my very humble opinion made the whole experience awesome. I can relate so many rituals that happen throughout the mass. They occur in four different parts. The first one is gathering, followed by storytelling, meal sharing and commissioning (Richstatter, 1989). At the very beginning, gathering rites happen. With this, members have to head to the church to form a congregation or a gathering. This is when mass takes place. At the entrance, there are ushers who gladly welcome everybody. Should they realize the presence of a new person, they guide you on how to carry yourself. They also give you missalettes that can help you to follow the mass and find it easy and enjoyable to participate in the celebration. A very common ritual that happens at the beginning of the entrance is the use of holy water to bless you. Catholics believe that the holy water acts as a reminder of baptism. This is why they have to do this each time as a sign of renewing the promise made during baptism. Having explained the rituals that happen in the first part, I find them very much important in our daily lives. We meet strangers daily in our lives. Giving them a warm welcome(Richstatter, 1989) determines how comfortable they feel when around you. This ritual has a great connection to the doctrines and the daily teachings of the Catholic Church. This is because it teaches and familiarizes members on the importance of being ready for each other. Since these rituals occur one after another, it is nice to relate them to each because they occur under the first part. We sin daily in our lives and find it difficult to be sorrowful of the sins before God. Through the ritual of using holy water at the main entrance is a sign getting together to God before the mass begins. A belief is worth practicing. This is so evident in the Catholic Church. They keenly imitate the happenings that Jesus Christ did all the way from the last supper to the day he rose from the dead. This shows a great

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Marketing Report Virgin Media Marketing Essay

Marketing Report Virgin Media Marketing Essay The aim of this research is to disclose the challenges and progress being made by Virgin and the marketing process and other crucial means leading to their progress. In order to complete this analysis, the adoption of strategic planning and marketing tool is crucial. Additional research for this report was completed through visiting Virgins online resources, which include historical archives, annual reports, strategies, operations etc. The aforementioned sources or documents provide background information, which acts as the basis for Virgins current position and against strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats analysis (SWOT analysis). Further analysis includes market segmentation, environmental analysis, target market and launching strategies. The first phase of this marketing report is to conduct a situation analysis that reveals the present state of the organization and its opportunities in the market. However, disclosing the history of the organization in view is crucial. The focus of the report thus would be on virgin media groups especially the mobile or telephony sector alongside the HD-TV or (3d TV) and broadband connection in the United Kingdom. Introduction Kotler and Kevin (2006) defined marketing as the science and art of selecting the right market, and then attracting and retaining customers making use of different techniques and making the customers happy. The marketing is not an easy concept of management. People believe it just as selling of goods, but it has the important role of satisfying the customers by giving them their needs and wants (Drysdale, 1999). This suggests that marketing is a tool, which involves the process of identifying the need of the product/ service in the market, and designing the product accordingly to fit into the market, using different strategies of sales and promotions. Successful marketing strategy is one, which makes increased returns from existing customers (Wilson et al., 2002). Marketing Process It is the process of marketing that makes the success or failure of the business. For below figure describes important characteristics associated with the marketing. Virgin media focuses on characteristics such as social, technological, political, and demographic factors for its marketing and promotional activities. Virgin also targets customers based on products in an appreciable manner by introducing 3D TVs into the market. This might act as the USP for the organization. Source: Kotler and Kevin (2006) Figure: Important factors of marketing strategy Company Background /Mission Statement The history of Virgin dates back to 1970 when Sir Richard Branson, the founder of the Company started with a student magazine and then the company expanded to several sectors; ranging from music labels, travel, drinks, financial services, media, music, transportation, telephony, media and services and fitness (virgin.com). Virgin has developed more than 300 branded companies globally. Global branded revenues as of 2009 accrued to around  £11.5 billion. A merger between Richard Bransons Virgin Mobile in 1993, and cable operator NTL, which metamorphosed into Virgin Media Inc on February 6, 2007, established media. External Marketing Audit Macro environment -Virgin Media Marketing is depicted by Brassington Pettit (2003, p.8-9) and Brassington Pettit (2007,p.2-3) as composed of conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas , goods and services. Brassington Pettit (2007, p.2-3; Armstrong 2009,p.7-9) specifically submitted that marketing involves; identifying, planning, anticipating, and satisfying customer demands or specification with profit in mind. It thus involves exchanging or stimulating of ideas and the processing of such ideas. It could also be depicted as the creation of awareness for products, which stems from designing products, conducting market research, launching strategies, ensuring availability and service. Marketing thus can be depicted as a demand management activity. The marketing scope however takes place in an environment which takes into consideration basic themes in marketing and customer relationship management (Brassington Pettit 2003, p.9-11). The macro environment audit examines ranges of issues that affect the organization from the environmental perspective. This is represented by PEST (Political, Economic, Social and Technological analysis (Drummond et al 1999, p.24). Despite the global economic recession, the innovation and launch of products have remained constant. The particular segment of Virgin media; the television and telephony sector which provides distribution of television programming , broadband and fixed line telephone services to consumers on Virgin Medias cable network accounted for over 84.5% of total revenue in the first half of 2010. Micro Environment Market Analysis With the new development of TV 3D and the proposed increase of the network offering a downstream speed of 100Mbps and an upstream speed of probably 10Mbps by the end of 2010. The cable TV, telephony and broadband sector however of Virgin media is envisaging spending up to 30% of  £40mthan last year as compared to  £170m this year. Appendix 1 further explains the current position of Virgin Media. The launching of 3D by Virgin media ahead of other major competitors like BSkyB which is available for domestic use demonstrates the innovative intent of the company. In this era of globalization, technologies become the particular part in our life. One of the significant parts of people daily-life is communication. That makes telecommunication infiltrate into customer lifestyle. Virgin Media, despite the so many innovative and early market entry cases with its product remains a loss prone company. Competitors such as BBC, ITV, Channel 4,BT Group and Talk Talk through their collaboration which seeks to deliver internet access and video on demand programming accessible to the Freeview digital TV box. Competitor Analysis The present position of Virgin Media in the market, as an innovative and early launcher of products .In 2010 , Virgin media has successfully completed a portfolio of voice, data and internet solutions to leading businesses alongside public organizations and service providers in the United Kingdom (Barnet 2010). The focus of this report however would be on the 3D revolution. With the new converged TV and broadband set -top box gaining more demand, Virgin Media would launch TiVo at the end of the year. From this perspective, Virgin media submits that in the first three months of the year and recorded around 200 views million views of video- on -demand content. TV channels have benefitted from this video-on- demand strategy, for instance, Channel 4s 4oD realized up to 19 million views through Virgin Media (Guardian.co.uk). The BBC iPlayer however stands as another medium through which more than 50 million views of content in the first quarter. The competitive advantage of BSkyB cannot be ignored. The battle for the 3D market is on, as Virgin Media has beaten BSkyB to launch the first commercial 3D Television service to the United Kingdom customers and further to other European companies starting from 1st October, 2010 (Virgin Media press release, 2010). The latest of strategies employed by BSkyB is the unveiling of the service known as 3D Movies on Demand, which allows customers access to 3D versions of films with a loop of preview programming. The positive of all this submission is that over 1.2 million households that have a V plus or V HD receiver and 3D glasses would be able to benefit from the 3D rental services. Customer Analysis The number of subscribers in the United Kingdom is increasing continually especially with the introduction of internet, broadband and lately 3D TV video on demand. Cable Products and Services Virgin media offers cable broadband internet, television and fixed line telephone services to residential customers in the United Kingdom. Virgin media offers its customers several packages and multiple services (Virgin media annual report 2009). Broadband Internet Virgin media has over 3.8 million subscribers, with several upgrades made to the network in the first half of 2010. As the first provider to offer download speeds of up to 50Mbps to over 12 million homes across the United Kingdom, with the current upgrade of up to 100 Mbps, Virgin media ranks one of the first companies in the United Kingdom to provide a further download speeds up to 200 Mbps (Halliday 2010). The broadband internet service has been credited as one of the successful sectors of Virgin Media with intense marketing and customer relationship management services (Virgin media annual report 2009). Television Virgin media operates in different aspects from the TV; Cable Television, Free TV service, Virgin TV on Demand (VOD) , High Definition Television, and Digital Video Recorders. The new 3D TV revolution leads to the examination of the internal market and the position of the media sector of the company. Internal Marketing Audit Operating results Virgin media has held a solid presence in the market with a combination of different sectors as disclosed above. From the perspective of Gilligan Wilson, (2009, p. 73-75) is concerned with strengths and weaknesses , organizational performance and structure, operations and resources , marketing objectives ,marketing strategy, information systems , control systems, functional efficiency, inter functional efficiency, cost effectiveness analysis. Fig 1 : The place of the marketing auditing in the overall management auditing Source: Gilligan Wilson, 2009, p. 79 Internal auditing assesses the extent to which an organization, its structure, and resources interact with the environment and they have the means of operating efficiently within certain constraints that the environment presents Gilligan Wilson, (2009, p.80). Five stages of auditing as disclosed by Gilligan Wilson, (2009, p.82) involves; defining the market, determining the performance, determining differences in competitive programmes, profile the strategies of the competitors and determining the strategic planning structure. Strategic Issue Analysis Investing in a particular business, demands a marketing research or audit. Following the corporations aim, which is to be the leader in entertainment communication, according to Virgin Media website, it provides a wide range of products to serve consumers wants and needs by focusing on entertainment and 3D technology with design and suitable for customers lifestyle. There are main three category of product, which is divided by usage and customers lifestyle as following: Daily life tool, Communication Entertainment, and Style Statement. Firstly, daily life tool is the mobile phone which is produced for customers who want just only basis of communication which could be linked with the mobile telephony business. The strategic concern here is the launch of the 3D TV, which is supposed to boost the Virgin Media Inc. Considering the modernity, and new customer or coverage of this new product. Certain things need to be taken into consideration; segmentation process which covers the consumer behaviour, social influences, personal influences and psychological influences (Drummond et al, 1999, p.51-59). SWOT Analysis Strengths Wide-range of products Environmentally friendly Strong partnership Reasonable price Early launcher or early market entry Weaknesses Accumulated deficit Wide range of Media products without any specialization Weak Brand identity Limited expansion of coverage Opportunities Christmas and New Year/Seasonal period sales Expanding of signal, broadband coverage with the TV. Increasing in On-line purchase Technology flood trend Threats More entrants into the market Strong competitors Negative media reports Marketing / Strategic Objective With the new 3D TV on demand in place, the entire marketing objective of Virgin Media is to consolidate its profit in the market through innovation and launching of new products (Virgin Media). At the beginning of this strategy, the strategic objective is to stimulate existing customers and potential customers to purchase the product (3D TV on demand). This plan takes issues such as services, after service, customer relations management and promotion, quality products and service delivery are crucial. However, it is crucial to drive total sales unit by attracting customer with a great deal. This can be achieved by applying Ansoffs Growth Strategies (Wood, 2007), to decide which area might be suitable for this plan, the decision is made by choosing market penetration. This penetration strategy of Virgin may help it in the long-term. The company will be able to penetrate well into the market segments left untouched. This will lead the organization towards a better position in the market. The company uses its different segment of products to penetrate simultaneously into the different market segments. Virgin strictly follows the marketing concept to sell its products all acros s. Their focus is on branding the products for increased sales. Furthermore, customer relationship management has become an important factor for Virgin, as the performance outcomes are categorized as customer loyalty, profitability, customer satisfaction and the market share (George A. Day Robin Wensley, 1988). Marketing Strategies Virgin should make use of segmentation strategy of market, based on the 4Ps of marketing (Kotler, 2006). They should select their two products 3D TVs for entertainment and the TV for transfer of information etc. Firstly, the 3D TV shall be sold to users who want just the comfort of the 3D entertainment. While the second type of TVs are for those looking for different applications on their TV for the transfer of information or use of the internet (Style Statement). Those who make purchase just for entertainment include children and homemakers, shall be targeted for the first type of product. Some people, who are professional by nature, and are more involved in the information transfer, shall be targeted for second type of product. The product chosen for discussion in the below sections is TV. Product Virgin Media produces a variety of products to serve any market segmentation with wide-range of prices depending on what features fit in customers needs. The customers have many choices to purchase other HD TVs or TVs with multimedia benefits, which are suitable for their lifestyle. According to the Product/segment analysis grid, Wood (2007), there are three categories for Virgin media TV. Their product (TV) is aimed to wide range of market segment. Thus, the company can achieve economies of scale by selling its products all across. Considering the products by using Product Life-Cycle Marketing Strategies, Kotler et al (2009), it has some products extinct from the market but it has also the products which resurrection to the market as well. Price The impact of the economy crisis, slow down the purchasing power and customer spending behaviour, during gift-giving holiday as Christmas and New Year are the special occasions for European. However, the pricing of their TVs is fit to the market today. The products range from HD TVs to the simple TVs for wide range of genera. Thus, the company here focuses on earning revenues from low involvement TVs by achieving economies of scale, while good margin on high involvement TVs. The information from Mintel mention that the average amount spent on gift for family and friends this Christmas was 370 pounds (Mintel 2007). This simply implies that for a product such as the 3D TV videos on demand, the price would be much affordable for subscribers and it would focus on a particular class of the society at first, which are the high earners and early technology adopters. (See Appendix 2). Place One of the marketing mix elements that would be the key success factor for any business is distribution channel. The channel, which could approach to the customer directly, should be the suitable way to increase profit in short term. Virgin thus makes use of the retailers distributed worldwide, to sell its products. From this fact, it leads the marketing department to choose direct marketing in term of e-marketing to be the channel and also using the existing channel that distribute product to retailer and the retailer sells to customers which means the company is using dual distribution for this marketing plan and selective distribution. The competitive advantage of online marketing is lower costs and prices. According to the accumulated deficit of the company, the department desire to lighten the load of companys expenditure by developing the website to sell the product. Promotion Just like the place, there should be multiple ways of communicating the benefits and awareness of the new product. Promotion could be through the following ways; Internet marketing, magazine, television to mention but a few (Appendix 3). The company uses promotion strategy as advertisements and various promotional plans randomly for selling its TVs. Virgin gains competitive advantage against its competitors due to its wide range of quality products. Continuous research and development by the company helps it to introduce new products into the market. These products, with big brand attached to it, sells in the market to gain revenues. Additionally, the long lasting existence of the company shows its expertise and experience in the industry. The company thus has linked with large number of retailers indirectly, to distribute the products directly to its end consumers. The company does not stand up with high pricing. Their pricing strategy is worth the brand value they have achieved. They stand well in the market with strong base. Thus, it suggests their pricing fit for upper-middle class of people. Marketing- An approach to success Marketing in itself is not an easy phenomenon. It varies from one geographic location to the other. For Virgin, the company analyses well the different approaches for selling its products at different places. For example, for selling its products in US, the products should be trendy and luxurious. The products shall be sold showing their fade. However, for countries such as India, China and Malaysia, the company shall use promotional strategies using the local cultural approach. The company offers huge discounts during cultural timings in these countries. This raises the sales of their products. Company also uses traditional means of representing their products as cost effective and as value to price. For this, Virgin promotes its products to grab the attention of both, end consumers and organizations. Selling to end consumer focuses on the benefits attached with the product for home use. However, for organizations, benefits on bulk purchase, benefits on using various range of products etc. is laid. This increases the probability of Virgins products acceptable all across. References Armstrong,G, Kotler, P,Harker, M,Brennan,R. (2009) Marketing and Introduction, Pearson Education Limited. Barnet, E. (2010) Virgin beats Sky to 3D service launch; accessed 29th September, 2010 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/8029425/Virgin-beats-Sky-to-3D-service-launch.html Drummond, G , Ensor, J Ashford, R.(1999) Strategic Marketing :planning and control; Oxford:Elsevier. Drysdale, L. (1999) Marketing or Market Orientation: Whats the Difference, Prime Focus The Professional Journal for Australian Primary School Leaders April pp28-29 George A. Day Robin Wensley (1988), Assessing Advantage: A Framework for Diagnosing Competitive Superiority. A Journal of Marketing, Vol. 52, pp. 1-20. Giligan, C Wilson,M.S .(2009) Strategic Marketing Planning, Oxford ,UK: Elsevier. Halliday, J . (2010) Virgin Media steps up battle over broadband speed advertising, accessed 1st October ,2010 ; http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/sep/02/virgin-media-broadband-speed-advertising Kotler, P. et al (2009) Marketing Management, London: Pearson Education Limited. Mintel, (2007), Christmas Shopping Habits 2009 report, Accessed 29th September, 2010: http://www.academic.mintel.com Philip Kotler, Kevin lane Keller (2006), Marketing Management, Prentice Hall, 12th edition, ISBN 0-13-145757-8, p. 6 Virgin Media press release (2010) accessed 1st October, 2010; http://pressoffice.virginmedia.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=205406p=irol-newsArticleID=1449279highlight= Virgin Media First Quarter 2010 Results ( 2010) accessed 1st October, 2010; http://pressoffice.virginmedia.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=205406p=irol-newsArticleID=1418909highlight= Virgin Media on Demand , accessed 1st October, 2010; http://www.virginmedia.com/tvradio/ondemand/ Virgin Media brings 3D TV to UK living rooms ; accessed 1st October, 2010; http://www.virginmedia.com/movies/features/virgin-media-3d.php Virgin media annual report 2009; accessed 30th September, 2010 ; http://investors.virginmedia.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=135485p=irol-reportsAnnualVirginMedia Wilson, H., Daniel, E., MacDonald, M. (2002), Factors for success in CRM systems. Journal of Marketing Management. Vol. 18, No.1, pp. 193-219 Wood, M.B. (2007), Essential Guide to Marketing Planning, London, Prentice Hall. Zack Investment research online archive ; accessed 1st October, 2010, http://www.stockresearchwiki.com/Ticker/VMED/ Appendix A

Friday, January 17, 2020

Advantages and Disadvantages of Fiber Optics

**Solvency** Not capable with current resources and timeframe to solve takes too long Fainberg, 2012 Max. BTOP Program Officer â€Å"Broadband Construction Season. † Home Page | NTIA. N. p. , 19 Oct. 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. . Broadband is a world of extremes: it takes heavy-duty, 10-ton equipment to install fiber strands that are as small as a human hair. It takes months and years of hot, sweaty, dust-filled workdays to build a network that will provide massive amounts of data to end users at speeds measured in millionths of a second.It takes hundreds of man-hours, at a pace of 1000 feet per day to install the fiber that will connect our schools and hospitals with resources on the other side of the planet with just the click of a mouse. Plan can’t solve alone Free Press Reports, 2009 Wired Less: Disconnected in Urban America. Washington D. C. : Free Press, 2009. Print. For many urban residents, high-speed Internet services, which typically  ¶ cost $40 to $60 per mont h, are simply too pricey. Compounding the  ¶ Internet access problem, many people are unable to afford a computer or  ¶ lack the skills to navigate the Web. And just like their rural counterparts, some urban areas have been redlined  ¶ by Internet service providers that refuse to offer service to communities  ¶ that may not provide as large a financial return.  ¶ Many urban residents are locked out, unable to participate fully in the  ¶ digital era. They’re prevented from applying for jobs, telecommuting,  ¶ taking online classes or even finishing their homework. It’s becoming  ¶ increasingly clear that Internet connectivity is key to a sound economy and  ¶ could assist those hit hardest by the economic downturn. Fiber-Optics are too vulnerable, delays solvency Seibert, 2009Paul. â€Å"The Advantages and Disadvantages of Fiber Optics | Hub Tech Insider. † Hub Tech Insider | Technology Trends in and around Boston and Beyond. Word Press, 4 June 2 009. Web. 23 Mar. 2013. . Fiber is a small and compact cable, and it is highly susceptible to becoming cut or damaged during installation or construction activities. Because railroads often provide rights-of-way for fiber optic installation, railroad car derailments pose a significant cable damage threat, and these events can disrupt service to large groups of people, as fiber optic cables can provide tremendous data transmission capabilities.Because of this, when fiber optic cabling is chosen as the transmission medium, it is necessary to address restoration, backup and survivability. **Executive Order Turns** Totalitarianism Turn Executive orders are instruments of totalitarianism Mayer, 2001 (Kenneth, Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Princeton University Press, â€Å"With the Stroke of a Pen†, 2001, http://press. princeton. edu/chapters/s7095. pdf, Accessed 7/23/2012) Observers who are even less sympathetic cast executive orders in analtogether sinister li ght, seeing in them evidence of a broad conspiracyto create a presidential dictatorship.The common theme of these com-plaints is that the executive order is an example of unaccountable power and a way of evading both public opinion and constitutional constraints. In the more extreme manifestations, executive orders are portrayed as an instrument of secret government and totalitarianism. Thepresident says â€Å"Do this! Do that! † and not only is it done, but the government, the economy, and individual freedom are crushed under the yokeof executive decree.Truman is said to have issued a top-secret executive order in 1947 to create a special government commission to investigate the alleged flyingsaucer crash in Roswell, New Mexico (the air force says no such orderexists, but not surprisingly the proponents of the UFO-order theory don’tbelieve it). 36 When John F. Kennedy issued a series of executive orders authorizing federal agencies to prepare studies of how they would respond to national emergencies, some saw this as evidence that the government was getting ready to take over the economy and establish totalitarian regime. 37 The Justice Department in 1963 complained of an â€Å"organized campaign to mislead the public† about these orders. The department had presumably grown tired of responding to members of Congress, who referred letters from constituents expressing outrage and alarm over the dictatorship that was right around the corner. 38 Conflict Turn Presidential funding approval without Congressional agreement causes inter-branch conflict Rosen 98 Colonel Richard, Judge Advocate General's Corps, United States Army, â€Å"Funding â€Å"Non-Traditional† Military Operations: The Alluring Myth Of A Presidential Power Of The Purse† Military Law Review 155 Mil. L. Rev. 1, Lexis] Finally, if a situation is sufficiently grave and an operation is essential to national security, the President has the raw, physical power–b ut not the legal authority–to spend public funds without congressional approval, after which he or she can either seek congressional approbation or attempt to weather the resulting political storm.To the President's immediate advantage is the fact that the only sure means of directly stopping such unconstitutional conduct is impeachment. 703 Congress could, however, [*149] certainly make a President's life miserable through other means, such as denying requested legislation or appropriations, delaying confirmation of presidential appointments, and conducting public investigations into the President's actions. Interbranch battles hold up agency action – major delays on implementation- the impact is no solvency Cooper 2 Phillip, Professor of Public Administration @ Portland State University, By Order of the President: The Use and Abuse of Executive Direct Action† 232-233] A president who is focused on the short-term, internal view of a possible decision may elect a power management approach. The emphasis is on efficient, effective, prompt, and controlled action within the executive branch. This is an increasingly common approach employed by new administrations; certainly it has been by Reagan and his successors.Whether spoken or unspoken, the tendency to adopt a power management perspective as the base for the use of presidential direct action tools may grow from an assumption that alternative approaches will simply not work or not work rapidly enough because of recalcitrant administrative agencies or opposition by other institutional players inside or outside the Beltway. The executive orders on rulemaking issued by presidents Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton and the Bush memoranda on the rulemaking moratorium are clear examples of this approach.The tendency to use this approach may also stem from the idea that the situation confronting the White House is a real or a perceived emergency in which the executive branch must be mobilized for ac tion. Another tendency is to use this type of approach in national security matters where the White House holds the view that time is of the essence and a particular window of opportunity exists that must be seized. This kind of action is common in the use of national security directives.Control of sensitive materials, personnel practices, or communications is often the focus of this kind of activity. Another feature of the power management approach is the attempt to use the policies of the executive branch to make a wider political point. Certainly the Reagan administration's Drug Free Workplace order is an example, as are many of the Clinton-era orders and memoranda associated with the reinventing government initiative.Still, the power management approach presents many of the dangers and challenges of the various types of instruments. The costs can be high, and the damage both within government and to people outside it can be significant. The rulemaking orders have tied administra tive agencies up in knots for years and have trapped them in a cross fire between the Congress that adopted statutes requiring regulations to be issued and presidents who tried to measure their success by the number of rulemaking processes they could block.Reagan's NSD 84 and other related directives seeking to impose dramatically intensified controls on access to information and control over communication during and after government employment incited a mini rebellion even among a number of cabinet level officials and conveyed a sense of the tenor of leadership being exercised in the executive branch that drew fire from many sources. The Clinton ethics order was meant to make a very public and political point, but it was one of the factors contributing to the administration's inability to staff many of its key positions for months.Tyranny Turn Executive orders are bad, cause tyranny and a loss in democracy Kissinger 92, Henry, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, 3/21/08,[â€Å"Executive T yranny,† http://www. cassiopaea. org/cass/exec_tyranny. htm / With the unearthing of old and newly improved executive orders recently we come to realise that this has been an ideological strategy that was designed long before the present U. S. administration. We are seeing the death throes of the US constitution and any semblance of democracy that may have initially existed with the founding fathers.It seems inevitable that the U. S. will become the epitome of a totalitarian rule with a further mandate to build on its already established cultural â€Å"McDonaldization† and geopolitical destruction of the planet. The above words from Kissinger giving a speech at the 1992 Bilderberg meeting in Evian, France, was recorded by a Swiss delegate, no doubt much to the chagrin of this â€Å"elder statesman†, who was unaware of the taping. The barely disguised contempt for humanity is only too familiar within the ranks of the â€Å"Elite†, and this man is particular ly active at the moment.No doubt he is seeing the beginnings of a Faustian pay-off for services rendered. I dread to think what misanthropic propaganda he is peddling behind the closed doors of conferences and special â€Å"interest groups† in 2003. The impact is value to life – moral side constraint Petro, 1974 Wake Forest Professor in Toledo Law Review, (Sylvester, Spring, page 480) However, one may still insist, echoing Ernest Hemingway – â€Å"I believe in only one thing: liberty. † And it is always well to bear in mind David Hume's observation: â€Å"It is seldom that liberty of any kind is lost all at once. Thus, it is unacceptable to say that the invasion of one aspect of freedom is of no import because there have been invasions of so many other aspects. That road leads to chaos, tyranny, despotism, and the end of all human aspiration. Ask Solzhenitsyn. Ask Milovan Dijas. In sum, if one believed in freedom as a supreme value and the proper orderin g principle for any society aiming to maximize spiritual and material welfare, then every invasion of freedom must be emphatically identified and resisted with undying spirit.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder ( Copd ) - 935 Words

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, or COPD, is a relatively common chronic illness that is treatable, however there is currently has no cure. COPD is an illness that encompasses two major illnesses these illnesses are chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Both of these illnesses wreak havoc on the lungs of the affected person by causing mucus to build up in the bronchioles henceforth reducing the effectiveness of the alveoli which impairs gas exchange. According to the American Lung Association, â€Å"COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States. More than 11 million people have been diagnosed with COPD, but an estimated 24 million may have the disease without even knowing it† (American Lung Association [ALA], n.d.). As this data from the American Lung Association shows, in the United States alone we may have a total of 35 million people (almost one tenth of the American population) living with COPD. QSEN, which stands for Quality and Safety Education for Nur ses, has developed six competencies related to nursing care. These competencies are Patient-Centered Care, Teamwork and Collaboration, Evidence-Based Practice, Quality Improvement, Safety, and Informatics. These aforementioned QSEN competencies break down how nurses should be treating patients and working with the health care team. Patient-Centered Care is a major competency due to the nature of what nursing is as a whole. Nurses are supposed to do anything that they can to advocate for the patient at allShow MoreRelatedChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder ( Copd )966 Words   |  4 PagesChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) is a progressive lung diseases mainly characterized as having emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It is one of the major cause of death and disability in the US.1 In 2011, it was the third leading cause of death in the US. Prevalence of COPD varies by state and was found to be 6.3% (nearly 15 million) amongst the US adults. Despite such high prevale nce, it remains undiagnosed or untreated in nearly half of the population.3 Prevalence rate is higher amongRead MoreIntroduction. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (Copd)1383 Words   |  6 Pages Introduction Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disorder (COPD) is a very prevalent disease in the world today with the most common cause being related to tobacco smoke. Not only is it associated with lung disease, but it has also been seen to be linked with many other comorbidities. However, the most concerning effect that COPD has on the body is towards the muscular dysfunction of skeletal muscle. Reasons, that are independent of lung function, that make this so concerning includes; an overall decreaseRead MoreChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( Copd )1166 Words   |  5 PagesChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is moving to the forefront of public health problems. It is projected to rank third in mortality rates by 2020.6 COPD is a lung disease that is treatable and preventative.6 The patient has toxic particles or gases that cause an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways and lungs as well as progressive airflow limitation.5 Other causes for COPD include emphysema, ch ronic bronchitis, chronic asthma, and some forms of bronchiectasis.6 OccupationRead MoreEssay On Copd1429 Words   |  6 Pages Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder: A Developing Clinical Concern Kylee Farnum NUR 475-UHC 399 Missouri State University Author NoteAbstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth-leading cause of death in the world and serves as a steadily growing healthcare problem resulting in severe morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that by the year 2020, COPD will develop into the third-leading cause of death, resulting in 5 million deaths per year, andRead MoreA Short Note On Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( Copd )1200 Words   |  5 PagesC hronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. COPD is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and it is largely preventable. The main cause in developed countries is exposure to tobacco smoke. Other preventable causes include exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution, such as occupational exposure (firefighters, farm workers) and the burning of biomass fuel for cooking and heating which impacts many womenRead MoreThe Psychological Status Of Patients With Asthma And Copd 1175 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Evaluation of the psychological status in Patients with Asthma and COPD is from the Iranian journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. The authors: Amir MH Asnaashari, Ali Talaei, and Mehry Baghban Haghighi evaluate fifty-nine women and forty-one men, who either had COPD, adult onset asthma, asthmatic bronchitis or were healthy. COPD and asthma severity was based on the GOLD criteria which stands for Global Obstructive Lung Disease. Depression outcomes were based on patient s answers to theRead MoreChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( Copd )1281 Words   |  6 PagesCOPD Case Study Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an interchangeable phrase used to describe respiratory diseases characterized by airway obstruction. COPD is now a well-known and serious chronic disease, killing many and affecting a mass number of people per year. COPD is a result in restricted (obstructed) airflow in the lungs. Obstructive diseases include bronchitis, in which inflammation causes chronic bronchial secretions and narrowing of the bronchi and emphysema a permanentRead MoreChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease820 Words   |  4 Pagescause of mortality worldwide, COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is reported to account for more than three million deaths per year 1 and is estimated to rank fifth in disease burden in 20202. The Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines updated their definition of COPD in 2006 as â€Å"a preventable and treatable disease with some significant extra-pulmonary effects that may contribute to the severity in individual patients. Its pulmonary component is characterised byR ead MoreCopd Case Study1262 Words   |  6 Pagesin Type II Alveolar Cells of COPD patients 2. Introduction: Multiple mechanisms are involved leading to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), which include a disproportion between the proteolytic and anti-proteolytic activity of lung tissue, a large influx of inflammatory cells, apoptosis of structural lung cells, and oxidative stress (Demedts et al., 2006). This condition involves an airway blockage that can be caused by emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. A majorRead MoreAn Analysis of the Informational Brochure about Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease1822 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The patient education tool under analysis in the present discussion is an informational brochure about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) intended to provide necessary information to patients regarding what the symptoms and causes are for the disease, what treatments are used for the disease, as well as a list of self-care tips patients can use to more effectively take care of themselves and minimize the severity of the disease as much as possible. The brochure is part of